Senin, 11 Januari 2010

Masjid Al-Aqsa

Senin, 11 Januari 2010
"al-Aqsa" redirects here. "Al-Aqsa" beralih ke halaman ini. For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation) . Untuk kegunaan lain, lihat Al-Aqsa (disambiguasi) .
Al-Aqsa Mosque Masjid Al-Aqsa
Masjid al-Aqsa Masjid al-Aqsa
Coordinates : 31°46′34″N 35°14′09″E  /  31.77617°N 35.23583°E  / 31.77617; 35.23583 Coordinates : 31°46′34″N 35°14′09″E  /  31.77617°N 35.23583°E  / 31.77617; 35.23583 Koordinat : 31 ° 46'34 "N 35 ° 14'09" E / 31,77617 ° LU 35,23583 ° E / 31,77617; 35,23583 Koordinat : 31 ° 46'34 "N 35 ° 14'09" E / 31,77617 ° N 35,23583 ° E / 31,77617; 35,23583
Location Lokasi Old City , Jerusalem Old City , Yerusalem
Established Didirikan 705 CE 705 CE
Administration Administrasi Waqf Wakaf
Leadership Kepemimpinan Imam(s): Imam (s):
Yousef Abu Sneineh Yousef Abu Sneineh
Muhammad Ahmad Hussein Muhammad Ahmad Hussein
Ekrima Sa'id Sabri Ekrima Sa'id Sabri
Architectural information Arsitektur informasi
Style Gaya Early Islamic , Mamluk Awal Islam , Mamluk
Capacity Kapasitas 5,000 5,000
Dome(s) Dome (s) 2 2
Minaret(s) Minaret (s) 4 4
Minaret height Tinggi menara 37 meters (121 ft) (tallest) 37 meter (121 ft) (tertinggi)
Materials Bahan Limestone (external walls, minaret, facade) stalactite (minaret), lead (dome), white marble (interior columns) Batugamping (dinding luar, menara, fasad) stalaktit (menara), timbal (kubah), marmer putih (kolom interior)
Al-Aqsa Mosque ( Arabic : المسجد الاقصى al-Masjid al-Aqsa , IPA: [ʔælˈmæsʒɪd ælˈʔɑqsˤɑ] ( Masjid Al-Aqsa ( bahasa Arab : المسجد الاقصى al-Masjid al-Aqsa, IPA: [ʔælmæsʒɪd ælʔɑqs ˤ ɑ] ( listen ) , "the Farthest Mosque"), also known as al-Aqsa , is an Islamic holy place in the Old City of Jerusalem . mendengarkan ), yang terjauh "Masjid), juga dikenal sebagai al-Aqsa, adalah" sebuah tempat suci Islam di Kota Tua dari Yerusalem . The site that includes the mosque (along with the Dome of the Rock ), also referred to as al-Haram ash-Sharif or "Sacred Noble Sanctuary", is the Temple Mount , the holiest site in Judaism , the place where the First and Second Temples are generally accepted to have stood. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Sacred Mosque in Mecca to al-Aqsa during the Night Journey . [ 3 ] Islamic tradition holds that Muhammad led prayers towards this site until the seventeenth month after the emigration , when God directed him to turn towards the Ka'aba . [ 4 ] Situs yang termasuk masjid (bersama dengan Kubah Batu ), juga disebut sebagai al-Haram ash-Sharif atau "Suci Noble Sanctuary", adalah Temple Mount , situs paling suci dalam Yudaisme , tempat di mana Pertama dan Kedua candi yang berlaku umum untuk memiliki berdiri. [1] [2] Muslim percaya bahwa Muhammad adalah diangkut dari Masjidilharam di Mekah ke al-Aqsa selama Perjalanan Malam . [3] tradisi Islam menyatakan bahwa Muhammad memimpin doa terhadap situs ini sampai ketujuh belas bulan setelah emigrasi , ketika Allah memerintahkannya untuk mengubah arah Kabah . [4]
According to Islamic belief, the prophet Jacob was the first to build the Mosque as a House of God, and it was later expanded and renovated by the prophet Solomon . Menurut keyakinan Islam, Nabi Yakub adalah yang pertama untuk membangun Masjid sebagai Rumah Tuhan, dan itu kemudian diperluas dan direnovasi oleh Nabi Sulaiman . The Kaaba in Mecca was the first House of Worship to God, and the Masjid Al-Aqsa (Bayt Al-Maqdis) was the second. The Kabah di Mekah adalah Rumah pertama Ibadah kepada Allah, dan Masjid Al-Aqsa (Bayt Al-Maqdis) adalah yang kedua. The current al-Aqsa Mosque was originally a small prayer house built by the Rashidun caliph Umar , but was rebuilt and expanded by the Ummayad caliph Abd al-Malik and finished by his son al-Walid in 705 CE. [ 5 ] After an earthquake in 746, the mosque was completely destroyed and rebuilt by the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur in 754, and again rebuilt by his successor al-Mahdi in 780. Al-Aqsa saat ini awalnya sebuah mushola kecil yang dibangun oleh Rasyidin khalifah Umar , tapi dibangun kembali dan diperluas oleh Ummayad khalifah Abd al-Malik dan selesai oleh anaknya al-Walid di 705 CE. [5] Setelah gempa di 746, masjid benar-benar hancur dan dibangun kembali oleh Abbasiyah khalifah al-Mansur di 754, dan lagi dibangun kembali oleh penggantinya al-Mahdi di 780. Another earthquake destroyed most of al-Aqsa in 1033, but two years later the Fatimid caliph Ali az-Zahir built another mosque which has stood to the present-day. gempa lain menghancurkan sebagian besar Al-Aqsa pada 1033, tetapi dua tahun kemudian Fatimiyah khalifah Ali az-Zahir lain dibangun masjid yang telah berdiri untuk hari-sekarang. During the periodic renovations undertaken, the various ruling dynasties of the Islamic Caliphate constructed additions to the mosque and its precincts, such as its dome , facade , its minbar , minarets and the interior structure. Selama renovasi periodik dilakukan, dinasti berbagai penguasa kekhalifahan Islam dibangun penambahan pada masjid dan daerah, seperti yang kubah , fasad , yang mimbar , menara dan struktur interior. When the Crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099, they used the mosque as a palace and church, but its function as a mosque was restored after its recapture by Saladin . Ketika Tentara Salib merebut Yerusalem pada tahun 1099, mereka menggunakan masjid sebagai sebuah istana dan gereja, tetapi fungsinya sebagai masjid dipulihkan setelah perusahaan merebut kembali oleh Saladin . More renovations, repairs and additions were undertaken in the later centuries by the Ayyubids , Mamluks , Ottomans , the Supreme Muslim Council , and Jordan . Lebih renovasi, perbaikan dan penambahan telah dilakukan pada abad-abad kemudian oleh Ayyubiyah , Mamluk , Ottoman , yang Agung Muslim Council , dan Yordania . Today, the Old City is under Israeli control, but the mosque remains under the administration of the Palestinian-led Islamic waqf . Hari ini, Kota Lama di bawah Israel kontrol, tetapi masjid tetap di bawah administrasi yang dipimpin Islam Palestina wakaf .

Contents Isi

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[ edit ] Etymology [ sunting ] Etimologi

Masjid al-Aqsa translates from Arabic into English as "the farthest mosque", Its name refers to a chapter of the Qur'an called " The Night Journey " in which it is said that Muhammad traveled from Mecca to "the farthest mosque", and then up to Heaven on a heavenly creature called al-Buraq al-Sharif . [ 6 ] [ 7 ] "Farthest" as used in this context means the "farthest from Mecca." [ 8 ] Masjid al-Aqsa diterjemahkan dari bahasa Arab ke bahasa Inggris sebagai "masjid terjauh", Namanya mengacu pada bab dari Al Qur'an disebut " Perjalanan Malam "di mana dikatakan bahwa Muhammad melakukan perjalanan dari Mekah ke" masjid terjauh ", dan kemudian naik ke surga pada makhluk surgawi yang disebut al-Buraq al-Sharif . [6] [7] "terjauh" sebagaimana digunakan dalam konteks ini berarti "jauh dari Mekah." [8]
For centuries, al-Masjid al-Aqsa referred not only to the mosque, but to the entire sacred sanctuary. Selama berabad-abad, al-Masjid al-Aqsa dimaksud tidak hanya untuk masjid, tapi untuk seluruh tempat kudus suci. This changed during the period of Ottoman rule (c. early 16th century to 1918) when the sanctuary complex came to be known as al Haram ash-Sharif , and the mosque founded by Umar came to be known as al-Jami' al-Aqsa or al-Aqsa Mosque. [ 9 ] Hal ini berubah selama masa pemerintahan Ottoman (abad ke-16 c. dini untuk 1918) ketika kompleks tempat kudus kemudian dikenal sebagai Haram al-Sharif abu, dan masjid yang didirikan oleh Umar kemudian dikenal sebagai-Jami 'al-Aqsa atau al-Aqsa. [9]

[ edit ] History [ sunting ] Sejarah

[ edit ] Pre-construction [ sunting ] Pra-konstruksi

The Mosque is located in the Haram Al Sharif, known generally in the English-speaking world as the Temple Mount, an enclosure expanded by King Herod the Great beginning in 20 BCE. Masjid ini terletak di Haram Al Sharif, yang dikenal umum di dunia berbahasa Inggris sebagai Temple Mount, selungkup diperluas oleh Raja Herodes Agung awal tahun 20 SM. Residing on an artificial platform, the mosque is supported by arches constructed by Herod's engineers to overcome the difficult topographic conditions resulting from the southward expansion of the enclosure into the Tyropoeon and Kidron valleys. Berada pada platform buatan, masjid ini didukung oleh lengkungan dibangun oleh Herodes's insinyur untuk mengatasi kondisi topografi yang sulit akibat perluasan selatan selungkup ke dalam Tyropoeon dan Kidron lembah. At the time of the Second Temple , the present site of the mosque was occupied by the Royal Stoa , a basilica running the southern wall of the enclosure. [ 10 ] The Royal Stoa was destroyed along with the Temple during the sack of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE. Emperor Justinian built a Christian church on the site in the 530s which was consecrated to the Virgin Mary and named "Church of Our Lady". Pada saat Bait Suci Kedua , situs kini masjid itu diduduki oleh Royal Stoa , sebuah basilika menjalankan dinding selatan kandang. [10] The Royal Stoa dihancurkan bersama dengan Bait Suci selama karung Yerusalem oleh Roma pada 70 CE. Kaisar Justinian membangun Kristen gereja di situs di 530s yang dipersembahkan kepada Perawan Maria dan bernama "Gereja Bunda Maria". The church was later destroyed by Khosrau II , the Sassanian emperor , in the early 7th century and left in ruins. [ 11 ] Gereja itu kemudian dihancurkan oleh Khosrau II , yang kaisar Sassania , pada abad ke-7 awal dan tertinggal di reruntuhan. [11]

[ edit ] Construction by the Umayyads [ sunting ] Konstruksi oleh Bani Umayyah

The mosque along the southern wall of the The Noble Sanctuary Masjid di sepanjang dinding selatan The Noble Sanctuary
It is unknown exactly when the al-Aqsa Mosque was first constructed and who ordered its construction, but it is certain that it was built in the early Ummayad period of rule in Palestine . Tidak diketahui persis ketika Masjid Al-Aqsa pertama kali dibangun dan yang memerintahkan konstruksi, tetapi dapat dipastikan bahwa itu dibangun pada periode Ummayad awal pemerintahan di Palestina . Architectural historian KAC Creswell , referring to a testimony by the Gallic monk , Arculf , of his pilgrimage to Palestine in 679–82, notes that it is possible that Umar erected a primitive quadrangular building for a capacity of 3,000 worshipers somewhere on the Haram ash-Sharif (Noble Sanctuary) or Temple Mount. Arsitektur sejarawan Kac Creswell , mengacu pada kesaksian oleh Galia biarawan , Arculf , ziarah ke Palestina di 679-82, catatan bahwa ada kemungkinan bahwa Umar mendirikan sebuah bangunan berbentuk segi empat primitif untuk kapasitas 3.000 jamaah di suatu tempat di Haram-abu Sharif (Noble Sanctuary) atau Gunung Bait. Arculf, however, visited Palestine during the reign of Mu'awiyah I , and it is possible that Mu'awiyah ordered the construction, not Umar. Arculf, bagaimanapun, mengunjungi Palestina pada masa pemerintahan Mu'awiyah saya , dan mungkin bahwa Muawiyah memerintahkan pembangunan, bukan Umar. This latter claim is explicitly supported by the early Muslim scholar al-Muthahhar bin Tahir. [ 12 ] Analysis of wooden beams and panels removed from the building during renovations in the 1930s shows they are made from Cedar of Lebanon and cypress . Ini klaim yang terakhir ini secara eksplisit didukung oleh ulama al Muthahhar bin Tahir Muslim. [12] Analisis dan panel kayu balok dikeluarkan dari gedung selama renovasi pada tahun 1930 menunjukkan mereka terbuat dari Cedar dari Libanon dan cemara . Radiocarbon dating indicates a large range of ages, some as old as 9th century BCE, showing that some of the wood had previously been used in older buildings. [ 13 ] Radiokarbon menunjukkan berbagai macam usia, beberapa setua abad ke-9 SM, menunjukkan bahwa beberapa kayu sebelumnya telah digunakan di gedung-gedung tua. [13]
According to several Muslim scholars, including Mujir ad-Din , al-Suyuti , and al-Muqaddasi , the mosque was reconstructed and expanded by the caliph Abd al-Malik in 690 along with the Dome of the Rock . [ 12 ] [ 14 ] Guy le Strange claims that Abd al-Malik used materials from the destroyed Church of Our Lady to build the mosque and points to possible evidence that substructures on the southeast corners of the mosque are remains of the church. [ 14 ] In planning his magnificent project on the Temple Mount, which in effect would turn the entire complex into the Haram al-Sharif ("the Noble Sanctuary"), Abd al-Malik wanted to replace the slipshod structure described by Arculf with a more sheltered structure enclosing the qibla , a necessary element in his grand scheme. Menurut ulama Muslim, termasuk iklan Mujir-Din , al-Suyuti , dan al-Muqaddasi , masjid ini dibangun kembali dan diperluas oleh khalifah Abd al-Malik di 690 bersama dengan Kubah Batu . [12] [14] Guy le Aneh mengklaim bahwa Abd al-Malik menggunakan bahan dari Gereja hancur dari Bunda Maria untuk membangun masjid dan menunjuk ke mungkin bukti bahwa substruktur di sudut tenggara Masjid yang tetap gereja. [14] Dalam perencanaan proyek megah di Bukit Bait Suci, yang pada gilirannya akan mempengaruhi seluruh kompleks ke dalam Haram al-Sharif ("Sanctuary Mulia"), Abd al-Malik ingin mengganti struktur ceroboh digambarkan oleh Arculf dengan struktur yang lebih terlindung melampirkan kiblat , sebuah diperlukan elemen dalam skema grand. However, the entire Haram al-Sharif was meant to represent a mosque. Namun, seluruh Haram al-Sharif dimaksudkan untuk mewakili masjid. How much he modified the aspect of the earlier building is unknown, but the length of the new building is indicated by the existence of traces of a bridge leading from the Umayyad palace just south of the western part of the complex. Berapa banyak ia memodifikasi aspek gedung sebelumnya tidak diketahui, tetapi panjang gedung baru ditandai dengan adanya bekas jembatan terkemuka dari istana Umayyah tepat di sebelah selatan bagian barat kompleks. The bridge would have spanned the street running just outside the southern wall of the Haram al-Sharif to give direct access to the mosque. Jembatan itu akan membentang jalan berjalan di luar tembok selatan Haram al-Sharif untuk memberikan akses langsung ke masjid. Direct access from palace to mosque was a well-known feature in the Umayyad period, as evidenced at various early sites. Akses langsung dari istana ke masjid adalah fitur terkenal di masa Umayyah, seperti yang dibuktikan pada berbagai lokasi awal. Abd al-Malik shifted the central axis of the mosque some 40 meters (131 ft) westward, in accord with his overall plan for the Haram al-Sharif. Abd al-Malik bergeser poros tengah masjid sekitar 40 meter (131 kaki) ke arah barat, sesuai dengan rencana secara keseluruhan untuk Haram al-Sharif. The earlier axis is represented in the structure by the niche still known as the "mihrab of 'Umar". Sumbu sebelumnya direpresentasikan dalam struktur oleh ceruk masih dikenal sebagai "mihrab dari 'Umar". In placing emphasis on the Dome of the Rock , Abd al-Malik had his architects align his new al-Aqsa Mosque according to the position of the Rock , thus shifting the main north–south axis of the Noble Sanctuary, a line running through the Dome of the Chain and the Mihrab of Umar. [ 15 ] Dalam menempatkan penekanan pada Kubah Batu , Abd al-Malik telah arsitek itu menyelaraskan baru Masjid Al-Aqsa sesuai dengan posisi Rock , sehingga pergeseran sumbu utara-selatan utama Noble Sanctuary, garis berjalan melalui Kubah Rantai dan Mihrab Umar. [15]
In contrast, Creswell, while referring to the Aphrodito Papyri, claims that Abd al-Malik's son, al-Walid I , reconstructed the Aqsa Mosque over a period of six months to a year, using workers from Damascus . Sebaliknya, Creswell, sedangkan mengacu pada Papiri Aphrodito, klaim bahwa al-Malik bin Abd, al-Walid I , direkonstruksi Masjid Aqsa selama enam bulan sampai satu tahun, menggunakan pekerja dari Damaskus . Most scholars agree that the mosque's reconstruction was started by Abd al-Malik, but that al-Walid oversaw its completion. Kebanyakan sarjana setuju bahwa rekonstruksi masjid dimulai oleh Abd al-Malik, tetapi bahwa al-Walid mengawasi penyelesaiannya. In 713–14, a series of earthquakes ravaged Jerusalem, destroying the eastern section of the mosque, which was subsequently rebuilt during al-Walid's rule. Dalam 713-14, serangkaian gempa bumi dilanda Yerusalem, menghancurkan bagian timur masjid, yang kemudian dibangun kembali selama pemerintahan al-Walid. In order to finance its reconstruction, al-Walid had gold from the dome of the Rock minted to use as money to purchase the material. [ 12 ] The Umayyad-built al-Aqsa Mosque most likely measured 112 x 39 meters. [ 15 ] Dalam rangka untuk membiayai rekonstruksi, al-Walid memiliki emas dari kubah Rock dicetak untuk digunakan sebagai uang untuk membeli bahan tersebut. [12] al-Aqsa dibangun Masjid Umayyah-kemungkinan besar diukur 112 x 39 meter. [15]

[ edit ] Earthquakes and re-construction [ sunting ] Gempa Bumi dan re-konstruksi

The facade and porch of the mosque were constructed and expanded by the Fatimids , the Crusaders , the Mamluks and the Ayyubids Fasad dan teras masjid ini dibangun dan diperluas oleh Fatimiyah , para Tentara Salib , para Mamluk dan Ayyubiyah
In 746, the al-Aqsa Mosque was damaged in an earthquake, four years before as-Saffah overthrew the Ummayads and established the Abbasid Caliphate . Pada 746, di Masjid Al-Aqsa rusak pada saat gempa, empat tahun sebelum as-Saffah menggulingkan Umayyah dan mendirikan Khilafah Abbasiyah . The second Abbasid caliph Abu Ja'far al-Mansur declared his intent to repair the mosque in 753, and he had the gold and silver plaques that covered the gates of the mosque removed and turned into dinars and dirhams to finance the reconstruction which ended in 771. Khalifah kedua Abbasiyah Abu Ja'far al-Mansur menyatakan niatnya untuk memperbaiki masjid di 753, dan ia memiliki emas dan perak plak yang menutupi gerbang masjid dihapus dan berubah menjadi dinar dan dirham untuk membiayai program rekonstruksi yang berakhir pada 771. A second earthquake damaged most of al-Mansur's repairs, excluding those made in the southern portion in 774. [ 14 ] [ 16 ] In 780, the successor caliph Muhammad al-Mahdi had it rebuilt, but curtailed its length and increased its breadth. [ 14 ] [ 17 ] Al-Mahdi's renovation is the first known to have written records describing it. [ 18 ] In 985, Jerusalem-born Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi recorded that the renovated mosque had "fifteen naves and fifteen gates". [ 16 ] Sebuah gempa kedua yang rusak sebagian besar-Mansur perbaikan al, termasuk yang dibuat di bagian selatan di 774. [14] [16] Pada 780, khalifah pengganti Muhammad al-Mahdi telah itu dibangun kembali, tapi dibatasi panjang dan meningkatkan luasnya. [14] [17] -Mahdi renovasi Al adalah yang pertama dikenal memiliki catatan tertulis yang menjelaskan hal itu. [18] Pada tahun 985, Yerusalem kelahiran geografi Arab al-Muqaddasi mencatat bahwa masjid direnovasi telah "naves lima belas dan gerbang lima belas". [ 16]
In 1033, there was another earthquake, severely damaging the mosque. Pada 1033, ada lagi gempa bumi, sangat merusak masjid. The Fatimid caliph Ali az-Zahir rebuilt and completely renovated the mosque between 1034 and 1036. The Fatimiyah khalifah Ali az-Zahir dibangun kembali dan direnovasi masjid antara 1034 dan 1036. The number of naves was drastically reduced from fifteen to seven. [ 16 ] Az-Zahir built the four arcades of the central hall and aisle, which presently serve as the foundation of the mosque. Jumlah naves itu secara drastis dikurangi 15-7. [16] Az-Zahir membangun empat arcade dari ruang pusat dan gang, yang saat ini menjadi dasar masjid. The central aisle was double the width of the other aisles and had a large gable roof upon which the dome—made of wood —was constructed. [ 12 ] Lorong pusat adalah dua kali lipat lebar gang lainnya dan memiliki atap gable besar yang di atasnya kubah-terbuat dari kayu dibangun. [12]
Jerusalem was captured by the Crusaders in 1099, during the First Crusade . Yerusalem direbut oleh Tentara Salib pada tahun 1099, selama Perang Salib Pertama . Instead of destroying the mosque—which they called "Solomon's Temple"—the Crusaders used it as a royal palace and as a stable for horses. Alih-alih menghancurkan masjid-yang mereka sebut "Kuil Salomo"-Tentara Salib digunakan sebagai istana kerajaan dan sebagai stabil untuk kuda. In 1119, it was transformed into the headquarters for the Templar Knights . Pada 1119, ia berubah menjadi markas bagi Knights Templar . During this period, the mosque underwent some structural changes, including the expansion of its northern porch, and the addition of an apse and a dividing wall. Selama periode ini, mesjid mengalami beberapa perubahan struktural, termasuk perluasan serambi utara, dan penambahan sebuah apsis dan dinding pemisah. A new cloister and church were also built at the site, along with various other structures. [ 19 ] The Templars constructed vaulted western and eastern annexes to the building; the western currently serves as the women's mosque and the eastern as the Islamic Museum . [ 16 ] Sebuah kaki lima baru dan gereja juga dibangun di situs tersebut, bersama dengan struktur lainnya. [19] The Templar dibangun Lampiran barat dan timur kubah untuk membangun; barat saat ini menjabat sebagai perempuan masjid dan timur sebagai Museum Islam . [ 16]
The Haram Area (Noble Sanctuary) lies in the eastern part of the city ; and through the bazaar of this (quarter) you enter the Area by a great and beautiful gateway ( Dargah )... Area Haram (Noble Sanctuary) terletak di bagian timur kota , dan melalui bazar ini (triwulan), Anda masukkan Kawasan oleh dan indah gateway besar ( Dargah ) ... After passing this gateway, you have on the right two great colonnades ( Riwaq ), each of which has nine-and-twenty marble pillars, whose capitals and bases are of colored marbles, and the joints are set in lead. Setelah melewati gerbang ini, Anda miliki di tiang-tiang besar kanan dua ( Riwaq ), masing-masing memiliki sembilan-dan marmer pilar dua puluh, yang modal dan basis adalah dari kelereng berwarna, dan sendi diatur dalam memimpin. Above the pillars rise arches, that are constructed, of masonry, without mortar or cement, and each arch is constructed of no more than five or six blocks of stone. Di atas pilar lengkungan naik, yang dibangun, dari batu, tanpa mortar atau semen, dan arch masing-masing dibangun tidak lebih dari lima atau enam blok batu. These colonnades lead down to near the Maqsurah . Tiang-tiang ini mengarah ke dekat Maqsurah .
Nasir Khusraw ' s description of the mosque in 1047 CE( Safarnama , translated by Guy Le Strange) [ 20 ] Nasir Khusraw 's deskripsi dari masjid di 1047 CE ( Safarnama , diterjemahkan oleh Guy Le Strange) [20]
After the Ayyubids under the leadership of Saladin reconquered Jerusalem following the siege of 1187 , several repairs were undertaken at al-Aqsa Mosque. [ 21 ] Saladin's predecessor—the Zengid sultan Nur al-Din —had commissioned the construction of a new minbar or "pulpit" made of ivory and wood in 1168–69, but it was completed after his death; Nur ad-Din's minbar was added to the mosque in November 1187 by Saladin. [ 22 ] The Ayyubid sultan of Damascus, al-Mu'azzam , built the northern porch of the mosque with three gates in 1218. Setelah Ayyubiyah di bawah pimpinan Saladin merebut kembali Yerusalem setelah pengepungan 1187 , perbaikan beberapa dilakukan di al-Aqsa. [21] Saladin pendahulu-the Zengid Sultan Nur al-Din -telah menugaskan pembangunan baru mimbar atau " mimbar "yang terbuat dari gading dan kayu di 1168-1169, tapi itu selesai setelah kematiannya;-Din mimbar adalah iklan ditambahkan ke dalam masjid November 1187 oleh Saladin. Nur [22] Sultan Ayyubiyah Damaskus, al-Mu'azzam , dibangun serambi utara masjid dengan tiga pintu gerbang di 1218. In 1345, the Mamluks under al-Kamil Shaban added two naves and two gates to the mosque's eastern side. [ 16 ] Pada 1345, para Mamluk di bawah al-Kamil Shaban menambah dua naves dan dua gerbang sisi timur ke Teman masjid. [16]
After the Ottomans assumed power in 1517, they did not undertake any major renovations or repairs to the mosque itself, but they did to the Noble Sanctuary as a whole. Setelah Dinasti Utsmani berkuasa pada tahun 1517, mereka tidak melakukan renovasi besar atau perbaikan ke masjid itu sendiri, tetapi mereka ke Sanctuary Noble secara keseluruhan. This included the building of the Fountain of Qasim Pasha (1527), the restoration of the Pool of Raranj , and the building of the three free-standing domes—the most notable being the Dome of the Prophet built in 1538. Ini termasuk bangunan dari Air Mancur Qasim Pasha (1527), pemulihan kolam Raranj , dan pembangunan yang berdiri bebas kubah-tiga yang paling terkenal sebagai Kubah Nabi yang dibangun pada tahun 1538. All construction was ordered by the Ottoman governors of Jerusalem and not the sultans themselves. [ 23 ] The sultans did make additions to existing minarets, however. [ 23 ] Semua konstruksi diperintahkan oleh gubernur Ottoman Yerusalem dan bukan sultan sendiri. [23] The sultan memang membuat penambahan menara yang ada, namun. [23]

[ edit ] Modern era [ sunting ] era Modern

The dome of the mosque in 1982. Kubah masjid pada tahun 1982. It was made of aluminum (and looked like silver), but replaced with its original lead plating in 1983 Itu terbuat dari aluminium (dan tampak seperti perak), tetapi diganti dengan memimpin aslinya plating pada tahun 1983
The first renovation in the 20th century occurred in 1922, when the Supreme Muslim Council under Amin al-Husayni (the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem ) commissioned Turkish architect Ahmet Kemalettin Bey to restore al-Aqsa Mosque and the monuments in its precincts. Renovasi pertama pada abad ke-20 terjadi pada tahun 1922, ketika Dewan Agung Muslim di bawah Amin al-Husayni (dengan Mufti Agung Yerusalem ) menugaskan arsitek Turki Ahmet Bey Kemalettin untuk mengembalikan Masjid Al-Aqsa dan monumen di Bait-nya. The council also commissioned British architects, Egyptian engineering experts and local officials to contribute to and oversee the repairs and additions which were carried out in 1924–25 by Kemalettin. Dewan juga menugaskan Inggris arsitek, Mesir ahli teknik dan para pejabat lokal untuk berkontribusi dan mengawasi perbaikan dan penambahan yang dilakukan pada 1924-1925 oleh Kemalettin. The renovations included reinforcing the mosque's ancient Ummayad foundations, rectifying the interior columns, replacing the beams, erecting a scaffolding , conserving the arches and drum of the dome interior, rebuilding the southern wall, and replacing timber in the central nave with a slab of concrete. Renovasi termasuk memperkuat's kuno Ummayad masjid yayasan, perbaikan kolom interior, mengganti balok, mendirikan sebuah perancah , melestarikan lengkungan dan drum interior kubah, membangun kembali dinding selatan, dan mengganti kayu di bagian tengah dengan slab beton . The renovations also revealed Fatimid-era mosaics and inscriptions on the interior arches that had been covered with plasterwork . Renovasi juga mengungkapkan era mosaik Fatimiyah dan tulisan di lengkungan interior yang telah ditutupi dengan plasterwork . The arches were decorated with green-tinted gypsum and gold and their timber tie beams were replaced with brass . Lengkungan dihiasi dengan hijau-berwarna gipsum dan emas dan mengikat balok kayu mereka digantikan dengan kuningan . A quarter of the stained glass windows also were carefully renewed so as to preserve their original Abbasid and Fatimid designs. [ 24 ] Severe damage was caused by the 1927 and 1937 earthquakes, but the mosque was repaired in 1938 and 1942. [ 16 ] Seperempat dari jendela kaca patri juga diperbaharui dengan hati-hati sehingga dapat mempertahankan mereka Abbasiyah asli dan desain Fatimiyah. [24] Kerusakan hebat yang disebabkan oleh gempa bumi 1927 dan 1937, tapi masjid itu diperbaiki pada tahun 1938 dan 1942. [16]
Inscription above Qibla, Aqsa mosque, depicting Fatimid Prasasti di atas kiblat, Aqsha, menggambarkan Fatimiyah
The mosque seen from the Western Wall plaza, 2005. Masjid ini dilihat dari Tembok Barat plaza, 2005.
On August 21, 1969, a fire occurred inside al-Aqsa Mosque that gutted the southeastern wing of the mosque. Pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1969, kebakaran terjadi di dalam Masjid Al-Aqsa yang memusnahkan sayap tenggara masjid. Among other things, the fire destroyed Saladin's minbar . [ 22 ] Initially, Palestinians blamed the Israeli authorities for the fire, and some Israelis blamed Fatah , alleging they had started the fire so as to blame the Israelis and provoke hostility. Antara lain, api menghancurkan's mimbar Shalahuddin. [22] Pada awalnya, Palestina menyalahkan pemerintah Israel untuk api, dan beberapa orang Israel menyalahkan Fatah , menuduh mereka telah memulai api sehingga menyalahkan Israel dan memprovokasi permusuhan. However, the fire was started by neither Fatah nor Israel, but a tourist from Australia named Denis Michael Rohan . Namun, api dimulai oleh Fatah tidak atau Israel, tetapi seorang turis dari Australia bernama Michael Denis Rohan . Rohan was a member of an evangelical Christian sect known as the Worldwide Church of God . [ 25 ] He hoped that by burning down al-Aqsa Mosque he would hasten the Second Coming of Jesus , making way for the rebuilding of the Jewish Temple on the Temple Mount. Rohan adalah anggota dari evangelis sekte Kristen yang dikenal sebagai Worldwide Church of God . [25] Ia berharap bahwa dengan membakar Masjid Al-Aqsa ia akan mempercepat Kedatangan Kedua dari Yesus , membuat jalan untuk membangun kembali Bait Suci Yahudi di Gunung Bait. Rohan was subsequently hospitalized in a mental institution. [ 26 ] The attack on al-Aqsa is cited as one of the catalysts for the formation of the Organization of the Islamic Conference in 1971, which brought together 57 Islamic countries . [ 27 ] Rohan kemudian dirawat di rumah sakit jiwa. [26] Serangan terhadap Al-Aqsa dikutip sebagai salah satu katalis untuk pembentukan Organisasi Konferensi Islam pada tahun 1971, yang membawa bersama 57 negara-negara Islam . [27]
In the 1980s, Ben Shoshan and Yehuda Etzion, both members of the Gush Emunim Underground , plotted to blow up the al-Aqsa mosque and the Dome of the Rock . Pada 1980-an, Ben Shoshan dan Yehuda Etzion, baik anggota Gush Emunim Underground , merencanakan untuk meledakkan masjid al-Aqsa dan Dome of The Rock . Etzion believed that blowing up the two mosques would cause a spiritual awakening in Israel, and would solve all the problems of the Jewish people. Etzion percaya bahwa meledakkan dua masjid akan menyebabkan kebangunan rohani di Israel, dan akan menyelesaikan semua masalah orang Yahudi. They also hoped the Third Temple of Jerusalem would be built on the location of the mosque. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] On January 15, 1988, during the First Intifada , Israeli troops fired rubber bullets and tear gas at protesters outside the mosque, wounding 40 worshipers. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] On October 8, 1990, 22 Palestinians were killed and over 100 others injured by Israeli Border Police during protests that were triggered by the announcement of the Temple Mount Faithful , a fringe group of religious Jews, that they were going to lay the cornerstone of the Third Temple. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] Mereka juga berharap Kuil Ketiga Yerusalem akan dibangun pada lokasi masjid. [28] [29] Pada tanggal 15 Januari 1988, selama Intifadah Pertama , pasukan Israel menembakkan peluru karet dan gas air mata pada pengunjuk rasa di luar masjid, melukai 40 jamaah. [30] [31] Pada tanggal 8 Oktober 1990, 22 warga Palestina tewas dan lebih dari 100 lainnya terluka oleh Polisi Perbatasan Israel selama protes yang dipicu oleh pengumuman dari Kuil Gunung Setia , sekelompok pinggiran Yahudi agama, bahwa mereka akan meletakkan landasan Kuil Ketiga. [32] [33]

[ edit ] Architecture [ sunting ] Arsitektur

The rectangular al-Aqsa Mosque and its precincts are 144,000 square meters (1,550,003.1 sq ft ), although the mosque itself is about 35,000 square meters (376,736.9 sq ft ) and could hold up to 5,000 worshipers. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] It is 272 feet (83 m ) long, 184 feet (56 m ) wide. [ 34 ] Al-Aqsa Masjid persegi dan daerah perusahaan adalah 144.000 meter persegi (1,550,003.1 sq ft ), meskipun masjid itu sendiri sekitar 35.000 meter persegi (376,736.9 sq ft ) dan dapat menyimpan hingga 5.000 jamaah. [34] [35] Ini adalah 272 kaki (83 m ) panjang, 184 kaki (56 m ) lebar. [34]

[ edit ] Dome [ sunting ] Kubah

The silver-colored dome consists of lead sheeting Kubah berwarna perak terdiri dari timbal terpal
Unlike the Dome of the Rock , which reflects classical Byzantine architecture, the dome of the Al-Aqsa Mosque is characteristic of early Islamic architecture . [ 36 ] Nothing remains of the original dome built by Abd al-Malik. Berbeda dengan Kubah Batu , yang mencerminkan arsitektur Bizantium klasik, kubah dari Masjid Al-Aqsa adalah karakteristik awal arsitektur Islam . [36] Tidak ada sisa-sisa kubah asli dibangun oleh Abd al-Malik. The present-day dome was built by az-Zahir and consists of wood plated with lead enamelwork . [ 12 ] In 1969, the dome was reconstructed in concrete and covered with anodized aluminum instead of the original ribbed lead enamel work sheeting. The-hari kubah ini dibangun oleh az-Zahir dan terdiri dari kayu disepuh dengan timbal enamelwork . [12] Pada tahun 1969, kubah dibangun kembali dalam beton dan ditutup dengan aluminium anodized bukan memimpin berusuk terpal enamel karya asli. In 1983, the aluminum outer covering was replaced with lead to match the original design by az-Zahir. [ 37 ] Pada tahun 1983, meliputi bagian luar aluminium diganti dengan timbal untuk mencocokkan desain awal dengan az-Zahir. [37]
Al-Aqsa's dome is one of the few domes to be built in front of the mihrab during the Umayyad and Abbasid periods, the others being the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus (715) and the Great Mosque at Sousse (850). [ 38 ] The interior of the dome is painted with 14th century-era decorations. -Aqsa kubah Al adalah salah satu dari kubah sedikit untuk dibangun di depan mihrab selama dan Abbasiyah periode Umayyah, yang lainnya adalah Masjid Umayyah di Damaskus (715) dan Masjid Besar di Sousse (850). [38] The interior kubah dicat dengan dekorasi era abad ke-14. During the 1969 burning, the paintings were assumed to be irreparably lost, but were completely reconstructed using the trateggio technique, a method that uses fine vertical lines to distinguish reconstructed areas from original ones. [ 37 ] Selama terbakar tahun 1969, lukisan itu dianggap irreparably hilang, tapi benar-benar direkonstruksi menggunakan trateggio teknik, metode yang menggunakan garis-garis vertikal halus untuk membedakan daerah direkonstruksi dari yang asli. [37]

[ edit ] Minarets [ sunting ] Menara

The mosque has four minarets on the southern, northern and western sides. [ 35 ] The first minaret, known as al-Fakhariyya Minaret, was built in 1278 on the southwestern corner of the mosque, on the orders of the Mamluk sultan Lajin . Masjid ini memiliki empat menara pada, utara dan barat sisi selatan. [35] Menara pertama, yang dikenal sebagai al-Fakhariyya Menara, dibangun tahun 1278 di sudut barat daya masjid, atas perintah dari Mamluk sultan Lajin . The minaret was built in the traditional Syrian style, with the base and shaft square and divided by moldings into three floors above which two lines of muqarnas decorate the muezzin 's balcony. Menara ini dibangun pada tradisional Suriah gaya, dengan dasar dan poros persegi dan dibagi dengan cetakan menjadi tiga lantai di atas yang dua baris muqarnas menghiasi muadzin balkon s ​​'. The niche is surrounded by a square chamber that ends in a lead-covered stone dome. [ 39 ] niche ini dikelilingi oleh sebuah ruangan persegi yang berakhir dengan ditutupi batu kubah-lead. [39]
The Ghawanima Minaret, 1900 Minaret Ghawanima, 1900
The second, known as the Ghawanima minaret, was built at the northwestern corner of the Noble Sanctuary in 1297–98 by architect Qadi Sharaf al-Din al-Khalili, also on the orders of the Sultan Lajin. Yang kedua, yang dikenal sebagai menara Ghawanima, dibangun di sudut barat laut dari Sanctuary Noble di 1297-1298 oleh arsitek Qadhi Sharaf al-Din al-Khalili, juga atas perintah dari Sultan Lajin. Thirty-seven meters in height, [ 39 ] it is almost entirely made of stone, apart from a timber canopy over the muezzin 's balcony. Tiga puluh tujuh meter tingginya, [39] hampir seluruhnya terbuat dari batu, selain dari kayu kanopi atas muadzin balkon s ​​'. Because of its firm structure, the Ghawanima minaret has been nearly untouched by earthquakes. Karena struktur perusahaan nya, menara Ghawanima telah hampir tak tersentuh oleh gempa bumi. The minaret is divided into several stories by stone molding and stalactite galleries. menara ini dibagi menjadi beberapa cerita dengan pencetakan batu dan stalaktit galeri. The first two stories are wider and form the base of the tower. Dua yang pertama cerita yang lebih luas dan bentuk dasar menara. The additional four stories are surmounted by a cylindrical drum and a bulbous dome. Keempat tambahan cerita diatasi oleh drum dan sebuah kubah bulat. The stairway is externally located on the first two floors, but becomes an internal spiral structure from the third floor until it reaches the muezzin's balcony. [ 40 ] tangga ini eksternal terletak di lantai pertama kedua, tetapi menjadi sebuah struktur spiral internal dari lantai tiga sampai mencapai muazin itu balkon. [40]
In 1329, Tankiz —the Mamluk governor of Syria—ordered the construction of a third minaret called the Bab al-Silsila Minaret located on the western border of the al-Aqsa Mosque. Pada 1329, Tankiz -Mamluk gubernur Syria-memerintahkan pembangunan menara ketiga disebut Bab al-Silsila Minaret terletak di perbatasan barat-Aqsa Masjid al. This minaret, possibly replacing an earlier Umayyad minaret, is built in the traditional Syrian square tower type and is made entirely out of stone. [ 41 ] It is an old Muslim tradition that the best muezzin ("reciter") of the adhan (the call to prayer), is assigned to this minaret because the first call to each of the five daily prayers is raised from it. [ 39 ] Menara ini, mungkin menggantikan sebelumnya Umayyah menara, dibangun di alun-alun menara jenis Suriah tradisional dan seluruhnya terbuat dari batu. [41] Ini adalah tradisi Muslim tua bahwa muadzin terbaik ("qari") dari adzan (yang azan), ditugaskan untuk menara ini karena panggilan pertama untuk masing-masing dari lima shalat harian yang dibangkitkan dari itu. [39]
The last and most notable minaret was built in 1367, and is known as Minarat al-Asbat. Menara terakhir dan paling terkenal dibangun pada 1367, dan dikenal sebagai Asbat Minarat al-. It is composed of a cylindrical stone shaft (built later by the Ottomans ), which springs up from a rectangular Mamluk-built base on top of a triangular transition zone. [ 42 ] The shaft narrows above the muezzin's balcony, and is dotted with circular windows, [ 39 ] ending with a bulbous dome. Ini adalah terdiri dari poros batu silinder (dibangun kemudian oleh Dinasti Utsmani ), yang terlepas dari basis Mamluk yang dibangun segi empat di atas zona transisi segitiga. [42] poros menyempit di atas muazin's balkon, dan dihiasi dengan lingkaran windows, [39] berakhir dengan bulat kubah. The dome was reconstructed after the Jordan Valley earthquake of 1927 . [ 42 ] Kubah ini dibangun kembali setelah gempa Lembah Yordania 1927 . [42]
There are no minarets in the eastern portion of the mosque because historically there were very few inhabitants on that side and so there was little reason to have an additional minaret to call Muslims to prayer. [ 35 ] However, in 2006, King Abdullah II of Jordan announced his intention to build a fifth minaret overlooking the Mount of Olives. Tidak ada menara di bagian timur masjid karena secara historis ada beberapa penduduk yang sangat pada sisi itu dan begitu ada sedikit alasan untuk memiliki menara tambahan untuk memanggil umat Islam untuk doa. [35] Namun, pada tahun 2006, Raja Abdullah II dari Jordan mengumumkan niatnya untuk membangun menara kelima yang menghadap ke Bukit Zaitun. The King Hussein Minaret is planned to be the tallest structure in the Old City of Jerusalem . [ 43 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] Raja Hussein Minaret direncanakan menjadi struktur tertinggi di Kota Tua dari Yerusalem . [43] [44] [45]

[ edit ] Facade and porch [ sunting ] Facade dan teras

The facade and porch of the mosque Para fasad dan teras masjid
The facade of the mosque was built in 1065 CE on the instructions of the Fatimid caliph al-Mustansir . The fasad masjid dibangun pada 1065 CE pada petunjuk dari Fatimiyah khalifah al-Mustansir . It was crowned with a balustrade consisting of arcades and small columns. Ini dimahkotai dengan pagar yang terdiri dari arcade dan kolom kecil. The Crusaders damaged the facade during their era of rule in Palestine, but it was restored and renovated by the Ayyubids . Para Tentara Salib merusak fasad mereka selama era pemerintahan di Palestina, tapi itu kembali dan direnovasi oleh Ayyubiyah . One addition was the facade's covering with tiles. [ 16 ] The second-hand material of the facade's arches includes sculpted ornamental material from taken from Crusader structures in Jerusalem. [ 46 ] There are fourteen stone arches along the facade, [ 6 ] most of which are of a Romanesque style. Satu tambahan adalah fasad menutupi dengan ubin. [16] The-tangan materi kedua fasad's lengkungan termasuk terpahat bahan hias dari diambil dari struktur Tentara Salib di Yerusalem. [46] Ada empat belas batu lengkungan sepanjang fasad, [6] sebagian besar yang seorang romantik gaya. The outer arches added by the Mamluks follow the same general design. Lengkungan luar ditambahkan oleh Mamluk mengikuti desain umum yang sama. The entrance to the mosque is through the facade's central arch. [ 47 ] Pintu masuk masjid adalah melalui's pusat lengkungan fasad. [47]
The porch is located at the top of the facade. teras ini terletak di bagian atas fasad. The central bays of the porch were built by the Knights Templar during the First Crusade , but Saladin's nephew al-Mu'azzam ordered the construction of the porch itself in 1217. [ 16 ] Teluk pusat teras dibangun oleh Ksatria Templar selama Perang Salib Pertama , tapi keponakan Shalahuddin Al-Mu'azzam memerintahkan pembangunan teras sendiri di 1217. [16]

[ edit ] Interior [ sunting ] Interior

Interior view of the mosque showing the central naves and columns Interior melihat masjid menunjukkan naves pusat dan kolom
The al-Aqsa Mosque has seven aisles of hypostyle naves with several additional small halls to the west and east of the southern section of the building. [ 17 ] There are 121 stained glass windows in the mosque from the Abbasid and Fatimid eras. The-Aqsa Masjid al memiliki tujuh lorong hypostyle naves dengan beberapa ruang kecil tambahan di sebelah barat dan timur bagian selatan bangunan. [17] Ada 121 kaca patri jendela di masjid dari era Abbasiyah dan Fatimiyah. About a fourth of them were restored in 1924. [ 24 ] Sekitar seperempat dari mereka dipulihkan pada tahun 1924. [24]
The doors of the Saladin Minbar, early 1900s Pintu-pintu dari Minbar Saladin, awal 1900
The mosque's interior is supported by 45 columns , 33 of which are white marble and 12 of stone. [ 34 ] The column rows of the central aisles are heavy and stunted, having a circumference of 9 inches (23 cm) by 3 inches (7.6 cm) and a height of 16 inches (41 cm) by 5 inches (13 cm). Masjid Interior didukung oleh 45 kolom , 33 di antaranya marmer putih dan 12 dari batu. [34] baris kolom dari lorong pusat berat dan kerdil, memiliki keliling 9 inci (23 cm) dengan 3 inci (7,6 cm) dan tinggi 16 inci (41 cm) dengan 5 inci (13 cm). The remaining four rows are better proportioned. Sisa empat baris yang lebih baik proporsional. The capitals of the columns are of four different kinds: those in the central aisle are heavy and primitively designed, while those under the dome are of the Corinthian order , [ 34 ] and made from Italian white marble. Ibukota dari kolom empat jenis yang berbeda: yang di lorong pusat berat dan primitif dirancang, sedangkan mereka yang di bawah kubah adalah dari order Korintus , [34] dan terbuat dari Italia marmer putih. The capitals in the eastern aisle are of a heavy basket-shaped design and those east and west of the dome are also basket-shaped, but smaller and better proportioned. Ibukota di lorong timur merupakan sebuah rancangan yang berbentuk keranjang berat dan orang-orang timur dan barat kubah juga keranjang berbentuk, tetapi lebih kecil dan lebih baik proporsional. The columns and piers are connected by an architectural rave, which consists of beams of roughly squared timber enclosed in a wooden casing. [ 34 ] Kolom dan dermaga dihubungkan oleh sebuah arsitektur rave, yang terdiri dari balok kayu kasar dari squared tertutup dalam casing kayu. [34]
A great portion of the mosque is covered with whitewash , but the drum of the dome and the walls immediately beneath it are decorated with mosaics and marble. Sebagian besar masjid ditutupi dengan mengapur , tetapi drum kubah dan dinding segera di bawahnya dihiasi dengan mosaik dan marmer. Some wretched paintings by an Italian artist were introduced when repairs were undertaken at the mosque after an earthquake ravaged the mosque in 1927. [ 34 ] The ceiling of the mosque was painted with funding by King Farouk of Egypt . [ 47 ] Beberapa lukisan celaka oleh seorang seniman Italia diperkenalkan ketika perbaikan sedang dilakukan di masjid setelah gempa melanda masjid pada tahun 1927. [34] Langit-langit masjid dicat dengan pendanaan oleh Raja Farouk dari Mesir . [47]
The minbar (" pulpit ") of the mosque was built by a craftsman named Akhtarini from Aleppo on the orders of the Zengid sultan Nur ad-Din . The mimbar (" mimbar ") dari masjid ini dibangun oleh seorang pengrajin bernama Akhtarini dari Aleppo atas perintah sultan Zengid Nur ad-Din . It was intended to be a gift for the mosque when Nur ad-Din would liberate Jerusalem and took six years to build (1168–74). Hal itu dimaksudkan untuk menjadi hadiah bagi masjid ketika Nuruddin akan membebaskan Yerusalem dan membawa enam tahun untuk membangun (1168-1174). Nur ad-Din died and the Crusaders held control of Jerusalem, but in 1187, Saladin captured the city and the minbar was installed. Nur ad-Din meninggal dan Tentara Salib memegang kendali atas Yerusalem, namun pada 1187, Saladin merebut kota dan mimbar tersebut telah terpasang. The structure was made of ivory and carefully crafted wood. Arabic calligraphy , geometrical and floral designs were inscribed in the woodwork. [ 48 ] After its destruction by Rohan in 1969, it was replaced by a much simpler minbar . Struktur ini terbuat dari gading dan hati-hati dibuat kayu. Arab kaligrafi , dan bunga desain geometris yang tertulis dalam kayu tersebut. [48] Setelah kehancuran dengan Rohan pada tahun 1969, ia digantikan oleh sebuah mimbar sederhana banyak. In January 2007, Adnan al-Husayni —head of the Islamic waqf in charge of al-Aqsa—stated that a new minbar would be installed; [ 21 ] it was installed in February 2007. [ 49 ] The design of the new minbar was drawn by Jamil Badran based on an exact replica of the Saladin Minbar and was finished by Badran within a period of five years. [ 48 ] The minbar itself was built in Jordan over a period of four years and the craftsmen used "ancient woodworking methods, joining the pieces with pegs instead of nails, but employed computer images to design the pulpit [ minbar ]." [ 21 ] Pada bulan Januari 2007, Adnan al-Husayni -kepala wakaf Islam yang bertanggung jawab al-Aqsa-menyatakan bahwa sebuah mimbar baru akan dipasang; [21] dipasang pada bulan Februari 2007. itu [49] Desain dari mimbar baru ditarik oleh Jamil Badran berdasarkan replika yang tepat dari Minbar Saladin dan selesai oleh Badran dalam kurun waktu lima tahun. [48] The mimbar itu sendiri dibangun pada Jordan selama empat tahun dan pengrajin digunakan "metode woodworking kuno, bergabung dengan potongan dengan pasak daripada paku, tapi gambar komputer digunakan untuk desain mimbar [mimbar] ". [21]

[ edit ] Ablution fountain [ sunting ] air mancur Wudhu

The al-Kas ablution fountain The-Kas al wudhu air mancur
The mosque's main ablution fountain, known as al-Kas ("the Cup"), is located north of the mosque between it and the Dome of the Rock. [ 39 ] It is used by worshipers to perform wudu , a ritual washing of the hands, arms, legs, feet, and face before entry into the mosque. Masjid utama wudhu air mancur, yang dikenal sebagai al-Kas ("Piala"), terletak di sebelah utara masjid antara itu dan Dome of The Rock. [39] Hal ini digunakan oleh jamaah untuk melakukan wudhu , ritual mencuci dari tangan, lengan, kaki, kaki, dan muka sebelum masuk ke masjid. It was first built in 709 by the Ummayads, but in 1327–28 Governor Tankiz enlarged it to accommodate more worshipers. Ini pertama kali dibangun pada 709 oleh Umayyah, tetapi dalam 1327-28 Tankiz Gubernur diperbesar untuk menampung lebih banyak jamaah. Although originally supplied with water from Solomon's Pools near Bethlehem , it currently receives water from pipes connected to Jerusalem's water supply. [ 50 ] In the 20th century, al-Kas was provided taps and stone seating. [ 51 ] Meskipun awalnya disediakan dengan air dari Salomo Pools dekat Betlehem , maka saat ini menerima air dari pipa air yang terhubung ke Jerusalem. [50] Pada abad ke-20, al-Kas diberikan keran dan tempat duduk batu. [51]
The Fountain of Qasim Pasha , built by the Ottomans in 1526 and located north of the mosque on the platform of the Dome of the Rock, was used by worshipers for ablution and for drinking until the 1940s. The Fountain of Qasim Pasha , dibangun oleh Dinasti Utsmani tahun 1526 dan terletak di utara masjid pada platform dari Kubah Batu, digunakan oleh jamaah untuk wudhu dan untuk minum sampai tahun 1940-an. Today, it stands as a monumental structure. [ 39 ] Hari ini, ia berdiri sebagai struktur yang monumental. [39]

[ edit ] Religious significance in Islam [ sunting ] signifikansi Agama dalam Islam

In Islam , the term "al-Aqsa Mosque" is not restricted to the mosque only, but to the entire Noble Sanctuary. [ 52 ] The mosque is known to be the second house of prayer constructed after the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca . Dalam Islam , istilah "al-Aqsa" Masjid tidak terbatas ke masjid saja, tetapi untuk seluruh Noble Sanctuary. [52] Masjid ini dikenal sebagai rumah doa kedua dibangun setelah Masjid Al-Haram di Mekkah . Post-Rashidun-era Islamic scholars traditionally identified the mosque as the site referred to in the sura (Qur'anic chapter) al-Isra ("the Night Journey"). Post-Rasyidin-era ulama Islam tradisional diidentifikasi masjid sebagai situs dimaksud dalam surah (Al-Qur'an bab) al-Isra ("Perjalanan Malam"). The specific passage reads "Praise be to Him who made His servant journey in the night from the sacred sanctuary to the remotest sanctuary." Bagian tertentu berbunyi "Segala puji bagi Dia yang melakukan perjalanan hamba-Nya di malam hari dari tempat kudus suci untuk tempat kudus terjauh." Muslims identify the "sacred sanctuary" as the Masjid al-Haram and the "remotest sanctuary" as the al-Aqsa Mosque. Muslim mengidentifikasi "tempat suci" sebagai Masjid Al-Haram dan "tempat kudus terpencil" sebagai Masjid Al-Aqsa. This specific verse in the Qur'an cemented the significant religious importance of al-Aqsa in Islam. Ayat ini khusus dalam Al Qur'an disemen pentingnya agama signifikan al-Aqsa dalam Islam. Initially, Rashidun and Umayyad-era scholars were in disagreement about the location of the "remotest sanctuary" with some arguing it was actually located near Mecca. Awalnya, Rasyidin dan Umayyah-era sarjana berada di ketidaksepakatan mengenai lokasi "terpencil tempat kudus" dengan beberapa berpendapat itu sebenarnya terletak dekat Mekkah. Eventually scholarly consensus determined that its location was indeed in Jerusalem. [ 53 ] Akhirnya konsensus ilmiah menetapkan bahwa lokasinya memang di Yerusalem. [53]
I asked the beloved Prophet Muhammad which was the first mosque on Earth? Saya bertanya kepada Nabi tercinta Muhammad yang merupakan masjid pertama di Bumi? 'The sacred house of prayer' he said. 'Rumah suci dari doa "katanya. And then which, I asked? Dan kemudian yang, saya bertanya? 'The farthest house of prayer,' he said. 'Rumah terjauh dari doa, "katanya. I further asked, what was the time span between the two? Saya lanjut bertanya, apa yang rentang waktu antara keduanya? 'Forty years', Prophet Muhammad replied. 'Empat puluh tahun, Nabi Muhammad menjawab.
"
"
According to Islamic tradition, during Muhammad's night journey ( al-isra ) he rode on al-Buraq who took him from Mecca to the site of al-Aqsa. Menurut tradisi Islam, selama perjalanan malam's Muhammad (al-Isra) ia menunggang Al-Buraq yang membawanya dari Mekah ke situs al-Aqsa. After he finished his prayers, the angel Jibril ( Gabriel ) took Muhammad to Heaven , where he met several other prophets and led them in prayer. [ 53 ] Setelah ia selesai shalat, malaikat Jibril ( Jibril ) membawa Muhammad ke Surga , di mana ia bertemu dengan beberapa nabi dan memimpin mereka dalam doa. [53]

[ edit ] First qibla [ sunting ] Kiblat Pertama

Interior view of the mosque showing the mihrab , indicating the qibla Interior melihat masjid menunjukkan mihrab , menunjukkan kiblat
The historical significance of the al-Aqsa Mosque in Islam is further emphasized by the fact that Muslims turned towards al-Aqsa when they prayed for a period of sixteen or seventeen months after migration to Medina in 624, thus it became the qibla ("direction") that Muslims faced for prayer. [ 55 ] According to Allame Tabatabayee , God prepared for change of qibla , first by revealing the story of Abraham and his son, Ishmael , their prayers for the Ka'bah and Mecca, their construction of the House (Ka'aba) and the order then received to cleanse it for the worship of Allah. Signifikansi historis dari Masjid al-Aqsa dalam Islam adalah lebih lanjut ditekankan oleh fakta bahwa kaum Muslim berbalik ke arah al-Aqsa ketika mereka berdoa untuk jangka waktu enam belas atau tujuh belas bulan setelah migrasi ke Madinah pada 624, sehingga menjadi kiblat ("arah ") yang dihadapi umat Islam untuk berdoa. [55] Menurut Allame Tabatabayee , Allah siap untuk perubahan kiblat, pertama dengan mengungkapkan kisah tentang Ibrahim dan putranya, Ismail , doa-doa mereka untuk Ka'bah dan Mekah, konstruksi mereka tentang rumah (Ka'bah) dan kemudian menerima pesanan untuk membersihkan itu untuk menyembah Allah. Then Quranic verses were revealed which ordered Muslims to turn towards Masjid al-Haram in their prayers. [ Qur'an 2:142–151 ] [ 4 ] Kemudian ayat-ayat Alquran diturunkan yang memerintahkan Muslim untuk kembali kepada Masjid Al-Haram dalam doa-doa mereka. [ Qur'an 2:142-151 ] [4]
The altering of the qibla was precisely the reason the Rashidun caliph Umar, despite identifying the Rock —which Muhammad used to ascend to Heaven —upon his arrival at the Noble Sanctuary in 638, neither prayed facing it nor built any structure upon it. The mengubah dari kiblat itu justru alasan yang Rasyidin khalifah Umar, meskipun mengidentifikasi Rock -yang digunakan Muhammad untuk naik ke Surga -setibanya di Sanctuary Noble di 638, tidak berdoa menghadapinya atau dibangun setiap struktur atasnya. This was because the significance of that particular spot on the Noble Sanctuary was superseded in Islamic jurisprudence by the Ka'aba in Mecca after the change of the qibla towards that site. [ 56 ] Hal ini karena pentingnya tempat tertentu di Noble Sanctuary digantikan dalam hukum Islam dengan Kabah di Mekah setelah perubahan kiblat menuju situs tersebut. [56]
According to early Qur'anic interpreters and what is generally accepted as Islamic tradition, in 638 CE Umar, upon entering a conquered Jerusalem, consulted with Ka'ab al-Ahbar —a Jewish convert to Islam who came with him from Medina —as to where the best spot would be to build a mosque. Menurut juru bahasa Alquran awal dan apa yang umumnya diterima sebagai tradisi Islam, pada tahun 638 M Umar, saat memasuki Yerusalem ditaklukkan, berkonsultasi dengan Ka'ab al-Ahbar -seorang Yahudi yang masuk Islam yang datang dengan dia dari Madinah -untuk di mana tempat terbaik akan membangun masjid. Al-Ahbar suggested to him that it should be behind the Rock "... so that all of Jerusalem would be before you". Al-Ahbar menyarankan kepadanya bahwa itu harus di belakang Rock "... sehingga semua Yerusalem akan sebelum Anda". Umar replied, "You correspond to Judaism!" Umar menjawab, "Anda sesuai dengan Yudaisme!" Immediately after this conversation, Umar began to clean up the site—which was filled with trash and debris—with his cloak, and other Muslim followers imitated him until the site was clean. Segera setelah percakapan ini, Umar mulai membersihkan situs yang penuh dengan sampah dan puing-dengan jubahnya, dan lainnya Muslim pengikut ditiru dia sampai situs itu bersih. Umar then prayed at the spot where it was believed that Muhammad had prayed before his night journey, reciting the Qur'anic sura Sad . [ 56 ] Thus, according to this tradition, Umar thereby reconsecrated the site as a mosque. [ 57 ] Umar kemudian berdoa di tempat di mana ia percaya bahwa Muhammad tidak berdoa sebelum perjalanan malam itu, membaca Al-Quran surah Sad . [56] Jadi, menurut tradisi ini, demikian Umar dipulihkan situs sebagai masjid. [57]
Because of the holiness of Noble Sanctuary itself—being a place where David and Solomon had prayed—Umar constructed a small prayer house in the southern corner of its platform, taking care to avoid allowing the Rock to come between the mosque and the direction of Ka'aba so that Muslims would face only Mecca when they prayed. [ 56 ] Karena kekudusan Noble Sanctuary sendiri-menjadi tempat di mana Daud dan Salomo telah berdoa-Umar dibangun sebuah mushola kecil di sudut selatan platform, perhatikan untuk menghindari memungkinkan Rock untuk datang antara masjid dan arah Ka 'aba sehingga umat Islam akan menghadapi hanya Mekah ketika mereka berdoa. [56]

[ edit ] Religious status [ sunting ] Status Agama

Wall hanging showing the three holy sites of Islam, Tunisia Wall hanging menunjukkan tiga tempat suci Islam, Tunisia
Jerusalem is recognized as a sacred site in Islam according to the Qur'an , tafsir , and hadith . Yerusalem diakui sebagai situs suci dalam Islam sesuai dengan Al Qur'an , tafsir , dan hadits . Muslims believe that numerous passages in the Qur'an refer to Jerusalem. [ 58 ] Jerusalem is also mentioned many times in the Hadith . Muslim percaya bahwa banyak bagian dalam Al-Qur'an merujuk ke Yerusalem. [58] Yerusalem juga disebutkan berkali-kali dalam hadis . Some academics attribute the holiness of Jerusalem to the rise and expansion of a certain type of literary genre, known as al-Fadhail or history of cities. Beberapa akademisi atribut kesucian Yerusalem pada peningkatan dan perluasan jenis tertentu dari genre sastra, yang dikenal sebagai al-Fadhail atau sejarah kota. The Fadhail of Jerusalem inspired Muslims, especially during the Umayyad period, to embellish the sanctity of the city beyond its status in the holy texts. [ 59 ] Others point to the political motives of the Umayyad dynasty which led to the sanctification of Jerusalem in Islam. [ 60 ] The Fadhail Yerusalem Muslim terinspirasi, khususnya selama periode Umayah, untuk memperindah kesucian kota di luar status dalam teks suci. [59] titik lain dengan motif politik dinasti Umayyah yang menyebabkan pengudusan Yerusalem dalam Islam . [60]
Later medieval scripts, as well as modern-day political tracts, tend to classify al-Aqsa Mosque as the third holiest site in Islam. [ 61 ] For example, Sahih Bukhari quotes Abu al-Dardaa as saying: "the Prophet of Allah Muhammad said a prayer in the Sacred Mosque (in Mecca) is worth 100,000 prayers; a prayer in my mosque (in Medina) is worth 10,000 prayers; and a prayer in al-Masjid al-Aqsa is worth 1,000 prayers", more than in any other mosque. abad pertengahan, script serta modern politik traktat, hari-cenderung mengklasifikasikan Masjid Al-Aqsa sebagai situs paling suci ketiga dalam Islam. Kemudian [61] Sebagai contoh, Sahih Bukhari quotes Abu al-Dardaa yang mengatakan: "Nabi Allah Muhammad mengucapkan doa di Masjidilharam (di Mekah) adalah senilai 100.000 doa, sebuah doa di masjid saya (di Madinah) bernilai 10.000 shalat, dan doa dalam al-Masjid al-Aqsha bernilai 1.000 shalat ", lebih daripada di lain masjid. In addition, the Organization of the Islamic Conference , (whose raison d'être is to "liberate al Aqsa from the Zionist [Israeli] occupation"), refers to the al-Aqsa Mosque (in a resolution condemning Israeli actions in the city) as the third holiest site in Islam. [ 62 ] Selain itu, Organisasi Konferensi Islam , (yang raison d'être adalah untuk "membebaskan Al Aqsa dari [Israel] pendudukan Zionis"), mengacu pada Masjid al-Aqsa (dalam resolusi mengutuk tindakan Israel di kota) sebagai situs paling suci ketiga dalam Islam. [62]

[ edit ] Current situations [ sunting ] situasi Lancar

[ edit ] Administration [ sunting ] Administrasi

The Waqf Ministry of Jordan held control of the al-Aqsa Mosque until the 1967 Six-Day War . Kementerian Wakaf dari Yordania diadakan kontrol Masjid al-Aqsa sampai tahun 1967 -Perang Enam Hari . After Israel's victory in that war, instead of the government taking control of the al-Aqsa Mosque, Israel transferred the control of the mosque and the northern Noble Sanctuary to the Islamic waqf trust, who are independent of the Israeli government. Setelah kemenangan Israel dalam perang itu, bukannya pemerintah mengambil kendali Masjid al-Aqsa, Israel mengalihkan kontrol masjid dan utara Noble Sanctuary untuk kepercayaan wakaf Islam, yang independen dari pemerintah Israel. However, Israeli Security Forces are permitted to patrol and conduct searches within the perimeter of the mosque. Namun, Pasukan Keamanan Israel diizinkan untuk melakukan pencarian dan patroli di sekeliling masjid. After the 1969 arson attack, the waqf employed architects, technicians and craftsmen in a committee that carry out regular maintenance operations. Setelah serangan pembakaran 1969, wakaf bekerja arsitek, teknisi dan pengrajin dalam suatu komite yang melakukan operasi pemeliharaan rutin. In order to counteract Israeli policies and the escalating presence of Israeli security forces around the site since the al-Aqsa Intifada , the Islamic Movement , in cooperation with the waqf , have attempted to increase Muslim control inside the Haram Al-Sharif. Dalam rangka untuk melawan kebijakan Israel dan meningkatnya kehadiran pasukan keamanan Israel di sekitar lokasi sejak al-Aqsa Intifada , yang Gerakan Islam , bekerjasama dengan wakaf, telah berusaha untuk meningkatkan kendali Muslim di dalam Haram Al-Sharif. Some activities included refurbishing abandoned structures and renovating. [ 63 ] Beberapa kegiatan termasuk refurbishing struktur ditinggalkan dan renovasi. [63]
Muhammad Ahmad Hussein is the head imam and manager of the al-Aqsa Mosque and was assigned the role of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in 2006 by Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas . [ 64 ] Other imams including Shaykh Yusuf Abu Sneina and the previous Mufti of Palestine, Sheikh Ikrima Sabri. Muhammad Ahmad Hussein adalah kepala imam dan pengelola Masjid al-Aqsa dan ditugaskan peran Grand Mufti Yerusalem pada tahun 2006 oleh Presiden Palestina Mahmoud Abbas . [64] imam lainnya termasuk Syekh Yusuf Abu Sneina dan Mufti Palestina sebelumnya, Sheikh Ikrima Sabri. Another of the former Imams of al-Aqsa, Shaykh Muhammad Abu Shusha, now resides in Amman . Lain dari mantan Imam al-Aqsa, Syaikh Muhammad Abu Shusha, sekarang berada di Amman .
Ownership of the al-Aqsa Mosque is a contentious issue in the Israel-Palestinian conflict . Kepemilikan-Aqsa Masjid al adalah isu perdebatan dalam konflik Israel-Palestina . Israel claims sovereignty over the mosque along with all of the Temple Mount (Noble Sanctuary), but Palestinians hold unofficial custodianship of the site through the Islamic waqf . Israel mengklaim kedaulatan atas masjid bersama dengan semua dari Temple Mount (Noble Sanctuary), tetapi Palestina terus perwalian resmi dari situs ini melalui wakaf Islam. During the negotiations at the 2000 Camp David Summit , Palestinians demanded complete ownership of the mosque and other Islamic holy sites in East Jerusalem . [ 65 ] Selama perundingan di KTT Camp David 2000 , Palestina menuntut kepemilikan lengkap dan tempat-tempat suci Islam lainnya masjid di Yerusalem Timur . [65]

[ edit ] Access [ sunting ] Akses

Sign in Hebrew and English outside the Noble Sanctuary stating what the Torah says about entering the area Sign in bahasa Ibrani dan bahasa Inggris di luar Noble Sanctuary menyatakan apa yang Taurat mengatakan tentang memasuki daerah
All Muslim citizens of Israel are normally allowed to enter and pray at the al-Aqsa Mosque. [ citation needed ] Israel occasionally prevents certain groups of Muslims from reaching Al-Aqsa; the restrictions vary from time to time. Semua warga Muslim Israel biasanya diperbolehkan untuk masuk dan berdoa di Masjid al-Aqsa [. rujukan? ] Israel kadang-kadang mencegah kelompok-kelompok tertentu umat Islam dari mencapai Al-Aqsa, pembatasan bervariasi dari waktu ke waktu. At times restrictions have prevented all men under 50 [ 66 ] (but married men 45-50 have sometimes been allowed [ 67 ] ), and women under 30 [ 67 ] from entering. Pada saat pembatasan telah mencegah semua orang di bawah 50 [66] (tapi pria menikah 45-50 kadang-kadang diizinkan [67] ), dan perempuan di bawah 30 [67] masuk. Sometimes the restrictions are enforced on the occasion of Friday prayers, [ 66 ] other times they are over an extended period of time. [ 68 ] Restrictions are most severe for Gazans, followed by restrictions on those from West Bank. Kadang-kadang pembatasan ditegakkan pada kesempatan shalat Jumat, [66] kali lain mereka selama jangka waktu. [68] Pembatasan yang paling berat bagi warga Gaza, diikuti dengan pembatasan tersebut dari Tepi Barat. Restrictions are relatively relaxed on Arabs from Israel and east Jerusalem. [ 69 ] Israel states that the restrictions are in place for security reasons. Pembatasan relatif santai pada orang-orang Arab dari Israel dan Yerusalem timur. [69] Israel menyatakan bahwa pembatasan berada di tempat karena alasan keamanan.
Many rabbis , including Israel's chief rabbinate since 1967, have ruled that Jews should not walk on the Temple Mount due to the possibility of their stepping on the site of the Holy of Holies . [ 70 ] Israeli governmental restrictions only forbid Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount, but allow Jews as well as other non-Muslims to visit for certain hours on certain days in the week. Banyak rabi , termasuk's kepala Israel kaum pendeta Yahudi sejak 1967, telah memutuskan bahwa orang Yahudi tidak boleh berjalan di Gunung Bait karena kemungkinan dari mereka menginjak situs dari Mahakudus . [70] pemerintah Israel pembatasan hanya melarang doa Yahudi di Bait Allah Gunung, tapi membiarkan orang Yahudi maupun non-Muslim untuk mengunjungi selama berjam-jam tertentu pada hari tertentu dalam seminggu. Several rabbis and Zionist leaders have demanded the right of Jews to pray at the site on Jewish holidays . [ 71 ] Although the Israeli Supreme Court has supported individual (as opposed to group) prayer, in practice Israeli police bar a Jew from praying "in any overt manner whatsoever on the Temple Mount, even if he is just moving his lips in prayer." [ 72 ] Beberapa rabi dan Zionis pemimpin menuntut hak orang Yahudi untuk berdoa di lokasi pada hari libur Yahudi . [71] Meskipun Mahkamah Agung Israel telah mendukung individu (sebagai lawan dari kelompok) doa, dalam prakteknya polisi Israel bar seorang Yahudi dari berdoa "dalam cara apapun apapun terbuka di Temple Mount, bahkan jika ia hanya menggerakkan bibirnya dalam doa ". [72]

[ edit ] Al-Aqsa Intifada [ sunting ] Al-Aqsa Intifada

On September 28, 2000, Ariel Sharon and members of the Likud Party , along with 1,000 armed guards, visited the al-Aqsa compound; a large group of Palestinians went to protest the visit. Pada tanggal 28 September 2000, Ariel Sharon dan anggota dari Partai Likud , bersama dengan 1.000 penjaga bersenjata, mengunjungi kompleks al-Aqsa, sebuah kelompok besar orang Palestina pergi untuk memprotes kunjungan. After Sharon and the Likud Party members left, a demonstration erupted and Palestinians on the grounds of the Haram al-Sharif began throwing stones and other projectiles at Israeli riot police. Setelah Sharon dan Partai Likud anggota kiri, demonstrasi meletus dan Palestina atas dasar dari Haram al-Sharif mulai melemparkan batu dan proyektil lainnya pada polisi anti huru hara Israel. Police fired tear gas and rubber bullets at the crowd, injuring 24 people. Polisi menembakkan gas air mata dan peluru karet di kerumunan orang, melukai 24 orang. The visit sparked a five-year uprising by the Palestinians, commonly referred to as the Al-Aqsa Intifada. [ 73 ] On September 29, the Israeli government deployed 2,000 riot police to the mosque. Kunjungan ini memicu pemberontakan lima tahun oleh rakyat Palestina, biasanya disebut sebagai Intifadah Al Aqsa. [73] Pada tanggal 29 September, pemerintah Israel mengerahkan 2.000 polisi anti huru hara ke masjid. When a group of Palestinians left the mosque after Friday prayers ( Jumu'ah ), they hurled stones at the police. Ketika sekelompok orang Palestina meninggalkan masjid setelah salat Jumat (Jum'at), mereka melemparkan batu pada polisi. The police then stormed the mosque compound, firing both live ammunition and rubber bullets at the group of Palestinians, killing four and wounding about 200. [ 74 ] Polisi kemudian menyerbu kompleks masjid, menembak baik peluru tajam dan peluru karet pada kelompok Palestina, menewaskan empat orang dan melukai sekitar 200. [74]

[ edit ] Excavations [ sunting ] Penggalian

Several excavations of the al-Aqsa Mosque took place throughout the 1970s: In 1970, Israeli authorities commenced intensive excavations directly beneath the mosque on the southern and western sides. Beberapa penggalian Masjid Al-Aqsa berlangsung sepanjang tahun 1970: Pada tahun 1970, pihak berwenang Israel memulai penggalian intensif langsung di bawah masjid di sisi selatan dan barat. In 1977, digging continued and a large tunnel was opened below the women's prayer area and a new tunnel was dug under the mosque, going east to west in 1979. Pada tahun 1977, dan terus menggali terowongan besar dibuka di bawah area doa perempuan dan sebuah terowongan baru digali di bawah masjid, ke timur ke barat pada tahun 1979. In addition, the Archaeological Department of the Israeli Ministry of Religious Affairs dug a tunnel near the western portion of the mosque in 1984. [ 33 ] Selain itu, Departemen Arkeologi dari Departemen Agama Israel menggali terowongan di dekat bagian barat masjid pada tahun 1984. [33]
In February 2007, the Department started to excavate a site for archaeological remains in a location where the government wanted to rebuild a collapsed pedestrian bridge. Pada bulan Februari 2007, Departemen mulai menggali sebuah situs untuk tetap arkeologi di lokasi di mana pemerintah ingin membangun kembali jembatan penyeberangan runtuh. This site was 60 metres (197 ft) away from the mosque. [ 75 ] The excavations provoked anger throughout the Islamic world , and Israel was accused of trying to destroy the foundation of the mosque. Ismail Haniya —then Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas leader — [ 76 ] called on Palestinians to unite to protest the excavations, while Fatah said they would end their ceasefire with Israel. [ 77 ] Israel denied all charges against them, calling them "ludicrous". [ 78 ] Situs ini adalah 60 meter (197 kaki) dari masjid. [75] Penggalian menimbulkan kemarahan di seluruh dunia Islam , dan Israel dituduh berusaha menghancurkan dasar dari masjid. Ismail Haniya -maka Perdana Menteri Palestina Nasional Otoritas dan Hamas Pemimpin - [76] menyerukan Palestina untuk bersatu untuk memprotes penggalian, sementara Fatah mengatakan mereka akan mengakhiri gencatan senjata mereka dengan Israel. [77] Israel menyangkal semua tuduhan terhadap mereka, menyebut mereka "menggelikan". [78]

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