Kamis, 21 Januari 2010

Masjid Badshahi - Masjid Kaisar, Lahore Pakistan

Kamis, 21 Januari 2010
Shahi Mosque Shahi Masjid
Badshahi Mosque In Lahore Pakistan Badshahi Masjid Di Pakistan Lahore
Nice View of Masjid Badsashi Nice Lihat Badsashi Masjid
Main Entrance of Badshahi Mosque Pintu masuk utama Masjid Badshahi
Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan (night) Badshahi Masjid di Lahore, Pakistan (malam)
Badshahi Masjid Badshahi Masjid
The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi, Urdu : بادشاھی مسجد ), or the 'Emperor's Mosque', in Lahore is the second largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and the fifth largest mosque in the world. Masjid Badshahi (Punjabi, Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), atau 'Masjid Sultan', yang di Lahore merupakan masjid terbesar kedua di Pakistan dan Asia Selatan dan mesjid terbesar kelima di dunia. It is Lahore's most famous landmark and a major tourist attraction epitomising the beauty, passion and grandeur of the Mughal era . Hal ini yang paling terkenal tengara Lahore dan daya tarik wisata utama epitomising keindahan, semangat, dan keagungan era Mughal.
Capable of accommodating 10,000 worshippers in its main prayer hall and 100,000 in its courtyard and porticoes, it remained the largest mosque in the world from 1673 to 1986 (a period of 313 years), when overtaken in size by the completion of the Faisal Mosque in Islamabad. Mampu menampung 10.000 jamaah di ruang doa utama dan 100.000 di halaman dan portico, itu tetap masjid terbesar di dunia 1673-1986 (jangka waktu 313 tahun), ketika dikalahkan dalam ukuran dengan penyelesaian Masjid Faisal di Islamabad. Today, it remains the second largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and the fifth largest mosque in the world after the Masjid al-Haram (Grand Mosque) of Mecca, the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Prophet's Mosque) in Medina, the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca and the Faisal Mosque in Islamabad. Hari ini, ia tetap menjadi masjid terbesar kedua di Pakistan dan Asia Selatan dan mesjid terbesar kelima di dunia setelah Masjid Al-Haram (Masjid Agung) dari Mekah, Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Masjid Nabawi) di Madinah, Hassan II Masjid di Casablanca dan Masjid Faisal di Islamabad.
To appreciate its large size, the four minarets of the Badshahi Mosque are 13.9 ft (4.2 m) taller than those of the Taj Mahal and the main platform of the Taj Mahal can fit inside the 278,784 sq ft (25,899.9 m 2 ) courtyard of the Badshahi Mosque, which is the largest mosque courtyard in the world. Untuk menghargai ukurannya yang luas, empat menara Masjid Badshahi adalah 13,9 ft (4,2 m) lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan Taj Mahal dan platform utama Taj Mahal dapat disimpan di dalam kaki persegi (25,899.9 m 2) dari 278.784 halaman Badshahi Masjid, yang merupakan halaman masjid terbesar di dunia.
Construction of the Badshahi Mosque was ordered in May 1671 by the sixth Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb, who assumed the title 'Alamgir'. Pembangunan Masjid Badshahi diperintahkan Mei 1671 oleh Kaisar Mughal keenam, Aurangzeb, yang diasumsikan judul 'Alamgir'. Construction took about two years and was completed in April 1673. Konstruksi waktu sekitar dua tahun dan selesai pada bulan April 1673. The construction work was carried out under the supervision of Aurangzeb's foster brother Muzaffar Hussain (also known as Fidaie Khan Koka) who was appointed Governor of Lahore in May 1671 and held this post until 1675. Pekerjaan konstruksi dilakukan di bawah pengawasan saudara angkat Aurangzeb Muzaffar Hussain (juga dikenal sebagai Fidaie Khan Koka) yang diangkat Gubernur Lahore Mei 1671 dan diadakan ini sampai 1675. He was also Master of Ordnance to the Emperor. Dia juga Master Ordnance kepada Kaisar. The mosque was built opposite the Lahore Fort, illustrating its stature in the Mughal Empire. masjid ini dibangun sebaliknya Fort Lahore, yang menggambarkan tingginya dalam Kekaisaran Mughal. In conjunction with the building of the mosque, a new gate was built at the Fort, named Alamgiri Gate after the Emperor. Sehubungan dengan bangunan masjid, sebuah gerbang baru dibangun di Fort, bernama Alamgiri Gate setelah Kaisar.
Badshahi Mosque was somewhat damaged and misused during the glorious reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, some claim it was converted into a stable for his horses, Badshahi Masjid agak rusak dan disalahgunakan selama pemerintahan mulia Maharaja Ranjit Singh, beberapa klaim itu diubah menjadi stabil untuk kuda-kudanya, other sources say it was used as a gun powder magazine for military stores. sumber lain mengatakan itu digunakan sebagai majalah serbuk senjata untuk toko militer. However, these claims can be dismissed as historical fallacies. Namun, klaim ini dapat dianggap sebagai kesalahan sejarah.
When the British took control of India, they would use the mosque for their military purposes by using the mosque for gun practices, cannons, etc. Even though they sensed Muslim hate for the British, they demolished a large portion of the wall of the mosque so the Muslims could not use it as a kind of “fort” for anti-British reasons. Ketika Inggris mengambil alih India, mereka akan menggunakan masjid untuk tujuan militer mereka dengan menggunakan masjid untuk praktek pistol, meriam, dll Bahkan meskipun mereka merasakan benci Muslim Inggris, mereka menghancurkan sebagian besar dinding masjid sehingga Muslim tidak bisa menggunakannya sebagai semacam "benteng" untuk alasan anti-Inggris. After a while, they finally returned it to the Muslims as a good will gesture, even though it was in terrible condition. Setelah beberapa saat, mereka akhirnya kembali ke Muslim sebagai isyarat niat baik, meskipun saat itu dalam kondisi mengerikan. It was then given to Badshahi Mosque Authority to restore it to its original glory. Saat itu diberikan kepada Badshahi Masjid Otoritas untuk mengembalikannya ke kemuliaan aslinya.
From 1852 onwards, piecemeal repairs were carried out under the supervision of the Badshahi Mosque Authority. Dari 1852 dan seterusnya, sedikit demi sedikit perbaikan dilakukan di bawah pengawasan Otoritas Badshahi Masjid. Extensive repairs were carried out from 1939 to 1960 at a cost of about 4.8 million rupees, which brought the mosque to its original shape and condition. perbaikan ekstensif dilakukan 1939-1960 dengan biaya sekitar 4,8 juta rupee, yang membawa masjid ke bentuk aslinya dan kondisi. The blueprint for the repairs was prepared by the late architect Nawab Zen Yar Jang Bahadur. Cetak biru untuk perbaikan disiapkan oleh arsitek Nawab akhir Zen Yar Jang Bahadur.
On the occasion of the second Islamic Summit held at Lahore on February 22, 1974, thirty-nine heads of Muslim states offered their Friday prayers in the Badshahi Masjid, led by Mawlānā Abdul Qadir Azad, the Khatib of the mosque. Pada kesempatan dari KTT Islam kedua diadakan di Lahore pada tanggal 22 Februari 1974, tiga puluh sembilan kepala negara Muslim yang ditawarkan mereka shalat Jumat di Masjid Badshahi, dipimpin oleh Mawlana Abdul Qadir Azad, yang Khatib masjid.
A small museum is also attached to the mosque complex. Sebuah museum kecil juga melekat pada kompleks masjid. It contains relics of the Prophet Muhammad, his cousin Ali, and his daughter, Fatimah. Ini berisi peninggalan Nabi Muhammad, sepupunya Ali, dan putrinya, Fatimah.
In 2000, the marble inlay in the main vault was repaired under the supervision of Saleem Anjum Qureshi. Pada tahun 2000, inlay marmer di kubah utama diperbaiki di bawah pengawasan Anjum Saleem Qureshi. In 2008, replacement work began to be carried out on the red sandstone tiles on the mosque's large courtyard, using red sandstone especially imported from the original source in Rajasthan, India. Pada tahun 2008, pekerjaan penggantian mulai dilakukan pada ubin batu pasir merah di halaman masjid besar, menggunakan batu merah khusus diimpor dari sumber aslinya di Rajasthan, India.
The architecture and design of the Badshahi Mosque closely resembles that of the slightly smaller Jama Mosque in Delhi, India, which was built in 1648 by Aurangzeb's father and predecessor, Emperor Shah Jahan. Arsitektur dan desain Masjid Badshahi erat menyerupai Masjid Jama sedikit lebih kecil di Delhi, India, yang dibangun pada 1648 oleh ayah Aurangzeb dan pendahulunya, Kaisar Shah Jahan. It is believed that Aurangzeb, in a bid to outdo his estranged father, had deliberately ordered that the Badshahi Mosque be larger than Delhi's Jama Mosque. Hal ini diyakini bahwa Aurangzeb, dalam upaya untuk mengalahkan ayahnya terasing, sengaja memerintahkan bahwa Masjid Badshahi lebih besar dari Delhi Jama Masjid.
Like the character of its founder, the mosque is bold, vast and majestic in its expression. Seperti karakter pendirinya, masjid tebal, besar dan megah dalam berekspresi. Its design was inspired by Islamic, Persian, Central Asian and Indian influences. Desain terinspirasi oleh Islam, Persia, Asia Tengah dan pengaruh India.
The interior of the mosque has rich embellishment in stucco tracery (Manbatkari) and a fresco touch on the ceiling panels, all in bold relief, as well as marble inlay . Bagian dalam masjid telah perhiasan kaya pola perhiasan semen (Manbatkari) dan sentuhan lukisan dinding pada panel langit-langit, semua lega tebal, serta inlay marmer.
The exterior is decorated with stone carving as well as marble inlay on red sandstone, specially of lotiform motifs in bold relief. eksterior yang dihiasi dengan ukiran batu serta inlay marmer pada batu pasir merah, khususnya motif lotiform lega tebal. The embellishment has Indo-Greek, Central Asian and Indian architectural influence both in technique and motifs. hiasan telah Indo-Yunani, pengaruh Asia Tengah dan India arsitektur baik dalam teknik dan motif.
The skyline is furnished by beautiful ornamental merlons inlaid with marble lining adding grace to the perimeter of the mosque. skyline ini dilengkapi dengan merlons hias yang indah dihiasi dengan lapisan marmer menambahkan rahmat ke sekeliling masjid. In its various architectural features like the vast square courtyard, the side aisles (dalans), the four corner minars, the projecting central transept of the prayer chamber and the grand entrance gate, is summed up the history of development of mosque architecture of the Muslim world over the thousand years prior to its construction in 1673. Dalam berbagai fitur arsitektur seperti persegi halaman luas, gang samping (dalans), yang minars sudut empat, transept pusat proyeksi dari ruang doa dan gerbang pintu masuk grand, yang menyimpulkan sejarah perkembangan arsitektur masjid Muslim dunia selama seribu tahun sebelum pembangunannya tahun 1673.
The north enclosure wall of the mosque was laid close to the Ravi River bank, so a majestic gateway could not be provided on that side and, to keep the symmetry the gate had to be omitted on the south wall as well. Dinding kandang utara masjid diletakkan dekat dengan bank Sungai Ravi, sehingga pintu gerbang yang megah tidak dapat disediakan pada sisi dan, untuk menjaga simetri gerbang harus dihilangkan pada dinding selatan juga. Thus, a four Aiwan plan like the earlier Delhi, Jamia Masjid could not be adopted here. Dengan demikian, empat Aiwan rencana seperti sebelumnya Delhi, Jamia Masjid tidak dapat diadopsi di sini.
The walls were built with small kiln-burnt bricks laid in kankar, lime mortar (a kind of hydraulic lime) but have a veneer of red sandstone. Dinding dibangun dengan batu bata kiln-bakaran kecil diletakkan di kankar, mortar kapur (semacam kapur hidrolik) tapi memiliki lapisan batu pasir merah. The steps leading to the prayer chamber and its plinth are in variegated marble. Langkah-langkah menuju ke ruang doa dan alas perusahaan di marmer beraneka ragam.
The prayer chamber is very deep and is divided into seven compartments by rich engraved arches carried on very heavy piers. Ruang doa adalah sangat dalam dan dibagi menjadi tujuh kompartemen oleh lengkungan terukir kaya dilakukan pada tiang sangat berat. Out of the 7 compartments, three double domes finished in marble have superb curvature, whilst the rest have curvilinear domes with a central rib in their interior and flat roof above. Dari 7 kompartemen, tiga kubah ganda selesai pada marmer memiliki kelengkungan yang luar biasa, sementara sisanya memiliki kubah lengkung dengan tulang rusuk pusat di atap interior dan flat di atas. In the eastern front aisle, the ceiling of the compartment is flat (Qalamdani) with a curved border (ghalatan) at the cornice level. Di lorong depan timur, langit-langit kompartemen ini datar (Qalamdani) dengan batas melengkung (ghalatan) di tingkat cornice.
The original floor of the courtyard was laid with small kiln-burnt bricks laid in the Mussalah pattern. Lantai asli dari halaman diletakkan dengan batu bata kiln-bakaran kecil diletakkan di dalam pola Mussalah. The present red sandstone flooring was laid during the last thorough repairs (1939-60). Lantai batu pasir merah ini diletakkan selama perbaikan menyeluruh terakhir (1939-1960). Similarly, the original floor of the prayer chamber was in cut and dressed bricks with marble and Sang-i-Abri lining forming Mussalah and was also replaced by marble Mussalah during the last repairs. Demikian pula, lantai asli dari ruang doa dalam bentuk potongan dan batu bata berpakaian dengan marmer dan lapisan Sang-i-Abri membentuk Mussalah dan juga digantikan oleh marmer Mussalah selama perbaikan terakhir.
There are only two inscriptions in the mosque: Hanya ada dua prasasti di masjid:
  • one on the gateway satu di gateway
  • the other of Kalimah in the prayer chamber under the main high vault yang lainnya Syahadat dalam ruang doa di bawah kubah tinggi utama
source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Badshahi_Mosque sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Badshahi_Mosque

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